Research Publications

Ahmed, K., D. Ingram, and C. J. Dickinson. Software for Educational Computing: A General-Purpose Driver for Computer-Assisted Instruction, Interrogation and System Simulation (“MACAID”). Lancaster: MTP Press Ltd, 1980.

Bloch, Ralph, David Ingram, George D. Sweeney, Khursheed Ahmed, and C.John Dickinson. “Macdope: A Simulation of Drug Disposition in the Human Body. Mathematical Considerations.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 87, no. 2 (November 1980): 211–36.

Bloch, Ralph, George Sweeney, K Ahmed, Cj Dickinson, and D Ingram. “‘MacDope’: A Simulation of Drug Disposition in the Human Body: Applications in Clinical Pharmacokinetics.” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10, no. 6 (December 1980): 591–602.

Carson, Ewart R., Claudio Cobelli, and Ludwik Finkelstein. The Mathematical Modeling of Metabolic and Endocrine Systems: Model Formulation, Identification, and Validation. Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems. New York: J. Wiley, 1983.

Cumin, D., and A. F. Merry. “Simulators for Use in Anaesthesia.” Anaesthesia 62, no. 2 (February 2007): 151–62.

Dickinson, C. J. “A Digital Computer Model to Teach and Study Gas Transport and Exchange between Lungs, Blood and Tissues ('MacPuf’).” The Journal of Physiology 224, no. 1 (July 1972): 7P-9P.

———. “Digital Computer Model of Gas Exchange and Blood Circulation for Research and Teaching.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 66, no. 4 (April 1973): 392.

Dickinson, C. J., Ingram, D., and Ahmed, K. “A Review of Educational Applications of a Series of Four Models of Circulation, Respiration, Body Fluids and Electrolytes, and Drug Absorption and Distribution.” In International Conference on Medical Computing Berlin, September 17–20, 1979 Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Medical Informatics. Berlin, 1979.

Dickinson, C. J., D. Ingram, and P. Shephard. “A Digital Computer Model for Teaching the Principles of Systemic Haemodynamics (‘MacMan’).” The Journal of Physiology 216, no. 1 (July 1971): 9P-10P.

Dickinson, C. J., and P. Shephard. “A Digital Computer Model of the Systemic Circulation and Kidney, for Studying Renal and Circulatory Interactions Involving Electrolytes and Body Fluid Compartments (‘MacPee’).” The Journal of Physiology 216, no. 1 (July 1971): 11P-12P.

Dickinson, Christopher John. A Computer Model of Human Respiration: Ventilation, Blood Gas Transport and Exchange, Hydrogen Ion Regulation: For Teaching, Research and Clinical Use, “MacPuf.” Baltimore: University Park Press, 1977.

Dickinson, C.J., D. Ingram, and K. Ahmed. “The Mac Family of Physiological Models.” Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 13, no. 2 (December 1985): 107–16.

Ellis, David. Medical Computing and Applications. Ellis Horwood Series in Computers and Their Applications. Chichester : New York: E. Horwood ; Halsted Press, 1987.

Engler, K. Animal-Related Computer Simulation Programs for Use in Education and Research. Vol. 1. Beltsville, Md.: National Agricultural Library, 1989.

Havenith, George. “Simulations of Physiological Responses to Exercise. Parameter Estimation on the Computer Model MACPUF.” The Hague, The Netherlands: Theoretical Biology Group, State University Utrecht, June 1982.

———. “Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Energy Production in Human Exercise (Anaerobic Threshold). Parameter Estimation on the Computer Model MACPUF.” The Hague, Netherlands: Theoretical Biology Group, State University Utrecht, April 1981.

Hinds, C. J., D. Ingram, L. Adams, P. V. Cole, C. J. Dickinson, J. Kay, J. R. Krapez, and J. Williams. “An Evaluation of the Clinical Potential of a Comprehensive Model of Human Respiration in Artificially Ventilated Patients.” Clinical Science 58, no. 1 (January 1980): 83–91.

Hinds, C. J., D. Ingram, and C. J. Dickinson. “Self-Instruction and Assessment in Techniques of Intensive Care Using a Computer Model of the Respiratory System.” Intensive Care Medicine 8, no. 3 (May 1982): 115–23.

Hinds, C. J., M. J. Roberts, D. Ingram, and C. J. Dickinson. “Computer Simulation to Predict Patient Responses to Alterations in the Ventilation Regime.” Intensive Care Medicine 10, no. 1 (January 1984): 13–22.

Ingram, David. Health Care in the Information Society: Volume 1 - From Adventure of Ideas to Anarchy of Transition. 1st ed. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2023.

———. Health Care in the Information Society: Volume 2 - From Anarchy of Transition to Programme for Reform. 1st ed. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2023.

Ingram, D., and R. F. Bloch, eds. Mathematical Methods in Medicine. Handbook of Applicable Mathematics 3–4. Chichester [Sussex] ; New York: Wiley, 1986.

Ingram, D, and CJ Dickinson. “A Preliminary Study of the Use of a Digital Computer Model of the Heart, Circulation, Body Fluid Compartments and Kidneys to Determine the Changes in Intrinsic Cardiac Contractility after a Heart Attack.” Recent Advances in Cybernetics and Systems, 1972, 501–12.

Kember, N.F. An Introduction to Computer Applications in Medicine. London, UK: Arnold Publishing, 1982.

Lipscomb, D. J., and R. H. Edwards. “A Computer Simulation of Physiological Factors Contributing to Hyperventilation and Breathlessness in Cardiac Patients.” British Journal of Diseases of the Chest 74, no. 1 (January 1980): 47–55.

Morrison, Jfb. “MacDope and MacPee — IRL Press Medical and Physiological Simulations.” Biochemical Education 17, no. 1 (January 1989): 50.

Randall, James E. Microcomputers and Physiological Simulation. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press, 1987.

Saunders, L, M Sherriff, J Dickinson, and D Ingram. “MacDope - An Interactive Computer Program for the Simulation of Pharmacokinetics in the Human.” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 30, no. Supplement_1 (December 1978): 93P-93P.

Shamsolmaali, A., E. R. Carson, P. O. Collinson, and D. G. Cramp. “A Knowledge-Based System Coupled to a Mathematical Model for Interpretation of Laboratory Data.” IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine: The Quarterly Magazine of the Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society 7, no. 2 (1988): 40–46.

Utsch, M. J., and D. Ingram. “Generator Program for Computer-Assisted Instruction: MACGEN. A Software Tool for Generating Computer-Assisted Instructional Texts.” Computer Programs in Biomedicine 17, no. 1–2 (1983): 167–74.

Verhoeff, F., and M. K. Sykes. “Delayed Detection of Hypoxic Events by Pulse Oximeters: Computer Simulations.” Anaesthesia 45, no. 2 (February 1990): 103–9.